The radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of air, water and the other radioactive materials. The ability of certain materials to emit the proton, gamma rays and electrons by their nuclei is known as the radioactivity. The protons are known as the alpha particle and the electrons are also known as the beta particle. Those materials are known as the radioactive elements. The environmental radiations can be from different sources and can be natural or manmade.
The natural radiations are also known as the background radiations. In this the cosmic rays are involved and reach the surface of earth from space. It includes the radioactive elements like radium, uranium, thorium, radon, potassium and carbon. These occur in the rock, soil and water. The man made radiations include the mining and refining of plutonium and thorium. This production and explosion of nuclear weapons include the nuclear fuels, power plants and radioactive isotopes.
The first atom bomb was exploded in the Japan in the year 1945. It affected the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. It adversely affected the flora, fauna and humans of that area. In spite of these destructions the nuclear race is still going on between different nations. The nuclear arms are tested with the production of nuclear weapons.
The radioactive elements are produced in the environment and affect other materials also. It includes the strontium, radium and iodine. The gases and particles are produced by the radioactive materials. They are carried by the wind and the rain brings down the radioactive particles to the ground which is referred as nuclear fallout. The soil transfers these radioactive substances to the plants and ultimately they reach the human body and cause many side effects. The iodine may affect the white blood cells, bone marrow, spleen, lymph, skin cancer, sterility, eye and damage to the lung. The strontium has the ability to aggregate in the bones and form a bone cancer and leads to tissue degeneration.
The radioactive materials are passed through the land to water and cause an adverse effect on the aquatic animals. They reach to human through the food chain. The nuclear power generates a lot of energy which is used to run turbines and produces electricity. The fuel and the coolant produce a large amount of pollution in the environment. The atomic reactors are also rich in the radioactive materials. There biggest problem is in their disposal and if they are not properly disposed they can harm the living organisms. If they escape they can cause a hell lot of destruction. The gases escape as a vapor and cause pollution on the land and water. The use of radioactive isotopes is multipurpose. They are of a great scientific value and they may be present in the waste water. From these water resources they reach to the human body via food chain. The people who work in power plants have more chances of the exposure to harmful radiations. The human beings also receive the radiation and radiotherapy from the x rays.