Explain The Structure Of Fungi?

The fungi have long tube like structures known as Hyphae. Only yeast is derived of it. The body containing hyphae is known as mycelium. It develops through spore by the growth of germ tube. Cells of yeast form chains which are temporary in nature. These are referred as pseudo mycelium. In yeast there are no separate vegetative and reproductive phases. While in rest of fungi they have separate vegetative and reproductive phases. In vegetative phase nutrients are absorbed. In reproductive phase hyphae becomes aerial and form fruit bodies.

In some cases hyphae of fungi come together and produce a mass known as Plectenchyma. It is of two types, prosenchyma which means towards tissue and pseudo parenchyma means false tissue. The cells are same in diameter and oval in shape. Hyphae can be septate or aseptate. In non septate there is no septa formation during nuclear division. So it becomes multi nucleate and if there is no septum it is called Coenocytic. In septate type there is formation of septa. These are formed after the division of nucleus. It leads to uni nucleate and bi nucleate conditions. They are also known as monokaryotic and bikaryotic. Most of the time septa are incomplete. They have pores which allow movement, rapid translocation, mobilization of different materials from older to younger parts. The cell wall of hyphae contains chitin mainly followed by cellulose, proteins and lipids. N acetyl glucosamine constitutes chitin. They have membrane bound organelle like endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosome and micro bodies. They have no plastids but they have peculiar membrane bound vesicle called lomasome. They store their food in the form of glycogen. Their cell division is of nuclear type which includes both mitotic and meiosis process.

Category: Fungi

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