Explain the different types of biotic succession?

There are different types of biotic succession which can be of primary or secondary type. The primary succession is also known as the prisere. It occurs on the bare areas which include the sand dunes, lava sediments, exposed sea floor and the newly submerged areas. These conditions are very difficult for the pioneer community to survive. It takes around 1000 years to establish itself. The secondary succession is also known as the subsere. It does not occur on the bare areas but the areas which are destroyed previously. The destruction may occur due to the presence of forest fires, recently cleared and harvested areas, landslide, overgrazed area, submergence and the drought. The subsere has an organic matter which is fertile and provides a succession very quickly. As soon as the conditions become favorable, the seeds, species and the underground parts give rise to a new community. This ultimately forms a climax community. The subsere takes around 100 to 200 years to develop depending upon the area whether it is a grass or a forest. The moss sphagnum may also invade the secondary succession. It affects the succession of stages and never allows the climax community to develop.
The different stages of succession which are present on the rocks are known as the lithosere. The lithosere is also known as the xerosome as the rocks have the water deficiency. The rock is not a favorable place for the living beings as they do not have water and neither have the ability to absorb the rain water. They are devoid of nutrients. When the temperature is high they can increase their surface temperature and it is very difficult for the plants to survive at these temperatures. The lichens are the first organisms that are able to survive under these extreme conditions. They occur in the temperate areas. The blue green algae can also survive at these conditions and they exist in the tropical areas. There are many seral stages on the rocks which are discussed below.

Category: Organism And Environment

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