Explain the changes in biotic community on the lake?

The different stages of succession which are present on the water are known as a hydrosere. It appears as the mud from water disappears. There are many seral stages on the water which are discussed below.
The plankton stage is the first stage to appear on water. It is referred as a pioneer stage. The spores are dispersed by the wind or animals. The phytoplankton is the first organism to appear on the water. These are minute organisms which are autotrophic. These include the diatoms, green flagellates, green algae and the blue green algae. The green algae can be single or filamentous. They have a high rate of reproduction. The zooplankton creates a balance as it feeds on the phytoplankton. The dead body of plankton forms the organic matter. It mixes up with the slit and clay at the bottom. It forms a soft mud which allows the growth of seral stage. This stage is followed by the submerged stage. The submerged plants grow in the soft mud which is rich in the organic matter. It includes the hydrilla and najas. They give rise to the dense growth. The sand and silt are present near the plants. It gives rise to the bottom. The humus is formed by the older and submerged parts of plant. The bottom gets enriched and allows the anchored plants to grow. This stage is followed by the floating stage. It has the anchored plants which appear when the water becomes shallow. It includes the nymphaea and nelumbo. They have rhizome and tuber. They make the water rich in minerals and organic matter. It helps in the growth of free floating plants. They cover the water and make the bottom which makes the water shallow. This stage is followed by the reed swap stage. It includes the amphibious plants which grow on the water as well as on land. These plants transpire the large quantities of water. They make a large amount of organic matter and their growth aggregates the silt. This stage is followed by the marsh meadow stage. This stage is also known as the sedge stage. This stage builds up the shores. This is intruded by the sedge and Cyprus. The grasses and herbs are also included which invade this stage. They make humus and transpire large amounts of water. It makes the soil by humus. This stage is followed by the woodland stage. It is formed by the periphery of sedge meadow. It is invaded by the rhizome bearing plants. They can bear sunlight as well as the wet conditions. It includes the bogwood and button brush. The plants of sedge meadow stage are shaded by the shrubs. This allows the tress to accumulate which can bear bright sun and wet conditions. It includes the populous and alnus. They lower the water table by the process of transpiration. They build the soil and the shade loving plants grow under them. This stage is followed by the climax forest. There are new tress which invades the area. They love shade and grow at goods heights. The trees and shrubs disappear. This climax forest depends upon the climate. The rain forest and deciduous forests occur in the tropical and temperate areas respectively. There is a temperate area which consists of mixed tress and includes the oak and elm. Some of the gymnosperms are also part of it.
The biotic succession sequence is fixed and it seldom changes. It is very helpful to the ecologists to identify the seral stage of community. The non existence of siltation protects the dam. It helps in the occurrence of biotic succession. The biotic succession gives a good knowledge about the deforestation and reforestation. They also help to give a knowledge regarding the growth of species by keeping a check on the superior forms. The grasses and herbs are maintained by the non spreading of biotic succession. It occurs with the use of grazing and fire.

Category: Organism And Environment

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