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Cyanobacteria are also known as Blue Green Algae. They are Gram positive prokaryotes. They are photosynthetic and have pigments like chlorophyll a, carotenoids, along with phycobilins. They have autotrophic mode of nutrition. They have thrived in almost every environment like hot springs, salt marshes, moist ...

Mycoplasmas are also known as PPLO. It stands for Pluero Pneumonia like organisms. They have no cell wall so they can change their shape and are referred as pleomorphic. They are smallest and very simple organisms. Their genetic material is single DNA which is naked. ...

Archaebacteria are also known as ancient bacteria. They are the oldest prokaryotes. Their characteristic feature is the absence of peptidoglycan in the cell wall and presence of proteins and polysaccharides. Some of them live under hostile conditions. They may be obligate or facultative anaerobe. They ...

Actinomycetes are without septate, mycelia tree like branched long filament structures which form radiating colony like structure. They are also referred as ray fungi. They have less than 1 um diameter. They are prokaryotic and their wall is composed of mycolic acid. Majority of them ...

These are referred as secretions released by small organisms which inhibit or destroy the pathogens without affecting the host. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to get discovered. It was Fleming who discovered it in the year 1929. Actinomycetes are the organisms which provide maximum number ...

Autotrophic and Heterotrophic are the main mode of nutrition in bacteria. The autotrophic bacteria make their own food from outside sources of energy. They are further divided into chemo and photo autotrophs. While heterotrophs do not make their own food and they depend on readymade ...

The respiration in bacteria is basically of two types aerobic and anaerobic which may be obligate or facultative. They are further classified as: Obligate aerobes: These are strict aerobes that mean they always require oxygen for their survival. They are not able to withstand anaerobic conditions. Facultative ...

Binary fission, sporulation and sexual reproduction are three main phases of reproduction in bacteria. Binary Fission is the most common method of reproduction. A mature bacterium divides into two equal parts. It is quite similar to amitosis. In this chromosomes divide when they are attached ...

Pili are synonym with appendages .They are longer, thicker tube like outgrowths and have no role to play in movement. They are made of pilin and attach themselves to conjugation tube. Fimbriae are the fibres which have tooth brush like bristles. They are large in number ...

Bacterial Flagella are single stranded quite similar to micro tubular fibre. They are 7 um in length and 0.02 um in diameter. Basal body, hook and filament constitute the bacterial flagellum. Basal body is rod like structure which has ring like swellings. A gram negative ...

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