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If we want to send or receive information through optical fiber cables then we have to attach some light signals with the information. This can be achieved either by digital or analog signals. Basically light modulations are of two types: 1. Direct Modulation 2. Indirect Modulation Indirect modulation: System degradations ...

Various applications of LASERS are :- 1. Communication: - long distance telephone calls can be made using laser beams. 2. Surgery: - Retinal operations are carried out with the help of lasers. 3. Engineering: - Little welding works can be done using laser beams. 4. Weather forecasting: - Lidar is a radar, which ...

Various characteristics of LASER are: 1. Pumping source is present in all lasers which provide energy. 2. Active material is also used in all lasers. Its main purpose is to convert the electric energy into light energy. 3. Each laser transforms the light beam into a focused narrow beam of light. ...

The lasers mainly consist of three major components. These are Active medium, Pump, and resonator guide. First we will discuss active medium. It can be in molecular or in atomic state. E.g., He, Ne, CO2, etc. It does ...

There are basically four types of lasers 1. Gas lasers 2. Solid lasers 3. Liquid lasers 4. Semi Conductor lasers Gas lasers:- These lasers contain a mixture of helium and neon. This mixture is packed up into a glass tube. This packed mixture act as an active medium. The preassure inside the tube is ...

It is a system in which we use the optical range of frequencies to send or receive the information to distant place from one point to another. During the last ten years, lots of advancements were achieved in communication sector. Video communication is also becoming popular. ...

In today’s fast world, telephone is a necessity. Telephony is not limited to earth. We can also converse from earth to any other planet e.g. moon, mars etc. It depends upon the condition whether to use wireless connection or wired connection for communication. Links can ...

Cable system is basically a collection of no of co-axial lines enclosed together in a tube or pipe. This cable system also consists of other useful things, along with the repeaters. In the figure below, those cables which are separated by a certain distance from ...

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