Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics are discussed below:
1. No restriction on the direction of the flow of heat: the first law establishes definite relationship between the heat absorbed and the work performed by a system. The first law does not indicate whether heat ...

We know that for an ideal gas, work done w is given as:
Wideal = -nRT ln (V2/ V1)
And for a a van der Waals Gas, work done is given as:
Hence for the expansion of a gas, V2 > V1, which shows that numerically the work ...

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One mole of an ideal gas is heated at constant pressure from 0oC to 200oC.
(a) Calculate work done.
(b) If the gas were expanded isothermally & reversibly at 0°C from 1 atm to some other pressure Pt, what must be the final pressure if the maximum ...

The gas is in the standard temperature and pressure condition i.e. at S.T.P
Hence V1 = 22.4 dm3 and V2 have to be calculated.
As given expansion is isothermal and reversible therefore, ∆U = 0
We know that ∆U = q + w
But ∆U = 0
Hence q = ...

Gibbs free energy:
It is the standard free energy which is equal to the difference in free energies of formation of the products and reactants both in their standard states. It is denoted by ΔGo.
Relationship between Free Energy and Equilibrium Constant
When equilibrium has not been attained, ...

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The required equation is
2C + H2 ----------> C2H5
Standard heat of formation i.e. ΔH ...

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The absorption of heat by the system tends to raise the energy of the system. The performance of work by the system, on the other hand, tends to lower the energy of the system because performance of work requires expenditure of energy. Therefore the change ...

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Let us suppose that for an ideal gas, isothermal and adiabatic expansions have initial volume Vi and pressure be Pi to a common final volume Vf. If Piso and Padia are the final pressures, then:
For isothermal expansion
Pi Vi = Piso Vf
And for adiabatic expansion,
Pi ...

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