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Equation of dissociation of hydrocyanic acid, HCN will be given as: HCN < ---------> H+ + CN- Let α is the degree of ionization of HCN Initial concentration: [HCN] = 0.2 [H+] = 0 [CN-] = 0 Equilibrium concentration: [HCN] = 0.2 (1 – α) H+] = 0.2 α [CN-] = 0.2 α Ka ...

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Strengths of acids and bases can be compared on the basis of their dissociation constants. The acid or a base having a higher value of dissociation constant is stronger. But, for quantitative comparison, the concentration of H+ ions should be determined for both acids in ...

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The ionization constant can be used to calculate the degree of dissociation or ionization and the concentration of H+ ions. Degree of dissociation or ionization may be defined as: The fraction of the total number of molecules of an electrolyte (acid or base) which ionizes into ions It ...

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The ionization constant or dissociation of a base BOH in water may be represented as: BOH (aq) B+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Therefore the ionization constant of the base, Kb, Therefore, Kb = [B+] [OH-] / [BOH] (Concentration of water remains constant) If c is the number of ...

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Lewis bases: According to Lewis concept, the following species can act as Lewis bases. 1. Neutral species having at least one lone pair of electrons: For example: Ammonia, amines, alcohols. Etc act as Lewis bases because they contain a pair of electrons. 2. Negatively charged species or anions: For example:Chloride, ...

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The Bronsted-Lowery concept and Arrhenius concept of acids and bases are limited to substances which contain protons. G.N. Lewis in 1923 proposed a more general and broader concept of acids and bases. Lewis concept states that: An acid is a substance whether molecule or ion which ...

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Advantages of Bronsted-Lowery Concept over Arrhenius Concept: 1. It can explain the basic character of substances like Na2CO3 i.e. which do not contain OH- group and hence were not bases according to Arrhenius concept on the basis that they accept protons. 2. This concept is not limited to molecules ...

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Consider a reaction of an acid and a base. HCl (aq) + NH3 (aq) ⇌ NH4+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) It is clear from the reaction that HCl donates a proton which act as an acid and forms Cl- ion which has tendency to accept a ...

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