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### Derive the relationship between Ka and Kb for an acid and its conjugate base.

Conjugate acid and base are related as: Base + H+ acid Acid H+ + base Let us consider a weak acid, HA HA (aq) + H2O < ---------------> H3O+ (aq) + A- (aq) Ka (HA) = [H3O+] [A-] / [HA]...................... (1) The conjugate base, A- behaves as ...

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### Calculate the pH of 10-8 M HCl.

If we use the relation, pH = - log [H3O+], we get pH equal to 8. But this is not correct because an acidic solution cannot have pH greater than 7. It may be noted that in very dilute acidic solution, when H+ concentrations from ...

### Calculate the pH of a sample of soft drink whose hydronium ion concentration is 3.8 x 10-3 M.

H3O+] = 3.8 x 10-3 pH = - log [H3O+] = - log (3.8 x 10-3) = - (log 3.8 – 3 log 10) = - log 3.8 + 3.0 = - 0.589 + 3 = 2.42 The pH of a sample of soft drink whose hydronium ion concentration ...

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### Calculate the pH if 1 mL of 13.6 M HCl is diluted with water to give 1 L of solution.

1 mL of 13.6 M HCl is diluted with water to give 1 L of solution: Molarity of the diluted solution is given as: M1 V1 = M2 V2 13.6 M x 1 mL = M2 x 1000 mL Therefore, M2 = 113.6 / 1000 = 1.36 x 10-2 ...

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### Calculate the pH of the 0.561 g of KOH dissolved in 200 mL of solution.

0.561 g of KOH dissolved in 200 mL of solution will have: Moles of KOH = 0.561 / 56 = 1.0 x 10-2 As molar mass of KOH = 56 u Concentration of solution = (moles of KOH / vol. of solution) x 1000 = (1.0 x 10-2 / ...

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### Derive the hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentration in aqueous solutions of acids and bases.

Hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentration in aqueous solutions of acids and bases: The ionic product is very important quantity in aqueous solutions because it controls the relative concentrations of H+ and OH- ions because their product is constant. In pure water, the concentrations of [H3O+] and ...

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### Discuss the ionization of water.

Ionization of water – ionic product of water Water is a weak electrolyte and undergoes self dissociation to a small extent as: H2O (l) + H2O (l) < --------------> H3O+ (aq) + OH- The dissociation constant foe the ionization of water is: K = [H3O+] [OH-] / H3O+] Since the ...

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### Calculate the concentration of H3O+ ions in a mixture of 0.02 M acetic acid and 0.1 M sodium acetate.

Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10-5. Acetic acid, CH3COOH is a weak acid which ionizes partially and sodium acetate is a strong electrolyte which ionizes completely in the solution. Let x be the number of moles of acetic acid ionized. Then, the concentrations of various ...

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