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HOMO : The highest occupied molecular orbital LOMO : Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The term Band gap means the difference between energies of the HOMO and LUMO. It will also used for measuring the excitability of the molecule. If the energy is smaller than more ...

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Bond order is given by Bond order = [number of bonding electrons – number of anti-bonding electrons]/2 Bond order is directly proportional to bond dissociation energy and inversely proportional to bond length i.e. higher the bond order, larger is the bond dissociation energy and smaller is the ...

The four sp3 hybrid orbitals are as follows: Ψ 1 = a 1 ф s + b 1 ф py +d 1 ф pz Ψ 2 = a 2 фs + b 2 ф py +d 2 ф pz Ψ 3 = a 3 ф s + b ...

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Resonance Energy The difference between the actual energy of the molecule and that of most stable resonating structure is known as Resonance Energy. Let us suppose that a molecule have three resonating structures which have energy E1, E2, E3 associated with them. From these three energies, E3 ...

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Pi (π) Bonds When sideways overlapping or lateral overlapping of the two atoms take place is known as lateral overlap of their 'p' orbital, and the bond formed is known as covalent pi (π) bond. The electron density is concentrated in the region perpendicular to the ...

Single covalent bond Formation of a covalent bond by sharing of one pair of electrons i.e. two electrons are involved is called a 'single covalent bond', or simply a single bond. A single covalent bond is represented by a small single line ( ) between the ...

SIMILARITIES: Valence Bond Theory (VBT) and Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT) have the following common features: 1. The Basic principle is same in both the theories. Both involve distribution of electrons. Thus whether it is atomic or molecular cannot have more than two electrons. 2. Both the theories include ...

The main characteristic properties of covalent compounds are: 1. The covalent compounds do not exist as ions but exist as molecules because of weak inter molecular force. 2. The covalent compounds have lower melting and boiling points 3. Covalent compounds are generally insoluble or less soluble in ...

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