What is lighting and thunderstorms?

The phenomenon of Thunderstorm and lightning is not yet cleared. Some experimental observations on this fact can be seen below:

1. It is said that during a thunderstorm different charged ions are separated from each other due to a complicated process. But any proof about this process is not known yet. During the thunderstorms the positive charge flews at a height of near about 6km above the surface of earth and the negative charges are about a distance of 2-3km from the earth’s surface. The lowest level of negative charge is supposed to be at the lower part of the cloud but the positive charge is supposed to be at the higher part.

electrostatics 2.68

2. The ratio of the thunderstorms coming each day in the whole world is near about 4 * 10 4

3. Earth is having a very high potential. So, the clouds formed will contain a negative charge of twenty coulombs. It is shown in figure. So, according to this the potential difference created between the earth and the cloud is having a value of approximately 107 to 108 . Due to this potential electric field of near about 104 V/m will be created. The direction of the generated electric field will be in the upward direction i.e. away from that of the earth.

4. Some times high electric collapses can be seen in the air due to high electric fields. Due to the earlier collapses, the molecules of air get ionized and start conducting the charge. The charge conducting is towards the earth from the clouds. This energy comes to earth in the form of flashes. These flashes are commonly known as lightning effects.

5. Clouds produce the lightning effects almost continuously. After each flash clouds regain their energy back and again prepare themselves for the next lightning flash. Suppose the clouds are producing near about 90 flashes per second. All this negative charge is falling on the earth. The magnitude of this falling negative charge is almost 1800 coulomb per/second. But if we calculate, the flowing positive charge in the earth is nearly 1800 coulomb per second. So, the magnitudes of both charges are same but one is positive and other is negative. They will cancel the effect of each other. This is the reason behind the stable state of our Earth.

Category: Electrostatics

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